LTS

    Innovation Version

      Installation Guideline

      This section describes how to install openEuler using a CD/DVD-ROM. The installation process is the same for other installation modes except the boot option.

      Starting the Installation

      Booting from the CD/DVD-ROM Drive

      Mount the ISO image of openEuler to the CD/DVD-ROM drive of the server and restart the server. The procedure is as follows:

      Note Before the installation, ensure that the server boots from the CD/DVD-ROM drive preferentially. The following steps describe how to use connect a virtual CD/DVD-ROM drive to the baseboard management controller (BMC) and install openEuler. The procedure for installing openEuler from a physical drive is the same as that of a virtual drive.

      1. On the toolbar, click the icon shown in the following figure.

        Figure 1 Drive icon

        An image dialog box is displayed, as shown in the following figure.

        Figure 2 Image dialog box

      2. Select Image File and then click Browse. The Open dialog box is displayed.

      3. Select the image file and click Open. In the image dialog box, click Connect. If Connect changes to Disconnect, the virtual CD/DVD-ROM drive is connected to the server.

      4. On the toolbar, click the restart icon shown in the following figure to restart the device.

        Figure 3 Restart icon

      Installation Boot Menu

      A boot menu is displayed after the system is booted using the boot medium. In addition to options for starting the installation program, some other options are available on the boot menu. During system installation, the Test this media & install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1 option is selected by default. Press the arrow keys on the keyboard to change the selection, and press Enter when the desired option is highlighted.

      Note

      • If you do not perform any operations within 1 minute, the system automatically selects the default option Test this media & install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1 and enters the installation page.
      • During physical machine installation, if you cannot use the arrow keys to select boot options and the system does not respond after you press Enter, click on the BMC page and configure Key & Mouse Reset.

      Figure 4 Installation boot menu

      Installation boot options are described as follows:

      • Install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1: Install openEuler on your server in GUI mode.

      • Test this media & install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1: Default option. Install openEuler on your server in GUI mode. The integrity of the installation medium is checked before the installation program is started.

      • Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting mode, which is used when the system cannot be installed properly. In troubleshooting mode, the following options are available:

        • Install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1 in basic graphics mode: Basic graphics installation mode. In this mode, the video driver is not started before the system starts and runs.
        • Rescue the openEuler system: Rescue mode, which is used to restore the system. In rescue mode, the installation process is printed to the VNC or BMC, and the serial port is unavailable.

      On the installation boot menu screen, press e to go to the parameter editing screen of the selected option, and press c to go to the command line interface (CLI).

      Installation in GUI Mode

      On the installation wizard page, select Test this media & install openEuler 22.03-LTS-SP1 to enter the GUI installation mode.

      You can perform graphical installation operations using a keyboard.

      • Press Tab or Shift+Tab to move between GUI controls (such as buttons, area boxes, and check boxes).
      • Press the up or down arrow key to navigate through a list.
      • Press the left or right arrow key to move between the horizontal toolbars and list bars.
      • Press the spacebar or Enter to select or delete highlighted options, expand or collapse a drop-down list.
      • Press Alt+a shortcut key to select the control where the shortcut key is located. The shortcut key can be highlighted (underlined) by holding down Alt.

      Selecting the Installation Language

      After the installation starts, you are prompted to choose the language that is used during the installation process. English is configured by default, as shown in the following figure. Configure the language as required.

      Figure 5 Selecting a language

      After the language is selected, click Continue. The installation page is displayed.

      If you want to exit the installation, click Exit. The message Are you sure you want to exit the installation program? is displayed. Click Yes in the dialog box to go back to the installation wizard page.

      Entering the Installation Page

      After the installation program starts, the installation page is displayed, as shown in the following figure. On the page, you can configure the time, language, installation source, network, and storage device.

      Some configuration items are marked with alarm symbols. A alarm symbol will disappear after the item is configured. Start the installation only when all the alarm symbols disappear from the page.

      If you want to exit the installation, click Exit. The message Are you sure you want to exit the installation program? is displayed. Click Yes in the dialog box to go back to the installation boot menu.

      Figure 6 Installation summary

      Setting the Keyboard Layout

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Keyboard. You can add or delete multiple keyboard layouts in the system.

      • To view the keyboard layout: Select a keyboard layout in the left box and click the keyboard icon under the box.
      • To test the keyboard layout: Select the keyboard layout in the left box and click the keyboard icon in the upper right corner to switch to the desired layout, and then type in the right box to check if the keyboard layout works properly.

      Figure 7 Setting the keyboard layout

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting the System Language

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Language Support to set the system language, as shown in the following figure. You can select another language as required.

      Note If you select Chinese, the system does not support the display of Chinese characters when you log in to the system using VNC, but supports the display of Chinese characters when you log in to the system using a serial port. When you log in to the system using SSH, whether the system supports the display of Chinese characters depends on the SSH client. If you select English, the display is not affected.

      Figure 8 Setting a system language

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting Date and Time

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Time & Date. On the TIME & DATE page, set the system time zone, date, and time.

      When setting the time zone, click a specific city on the map, or select a region from the drop-down list of Region and a city from the drop-down list of City at the top of the page, as shown in the following figure.

      If your city is not displayed on the map or in the drop-down list, select the nearest city in the same time zone.

      Note

      • Before manually setting the time zone, disable the network time synchronization function in the upper right corner.
      • If you want to use the network time, ensure that the remote NTP server is reachable. For details about how to set the network, see Setting the Network and Host Name.

      Figure 9 Setting date and time

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting the Installation Source

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Installation Source to specify the installation source.

      • When you use a full CD/DVD image for installation, the installation program automatically detects and displays the installation source information. You can use the default settings, as shown in the following figure.

        Figure 10 Installation source

      • When the network source is used for installation, you need to set the URL of the network source.

        • HTTP or HTTPS mode

          The following figure shows the installation source in HTTP or HTTPS mode:

          If the HTTPS server uses a private certificate, press e on the installation boot menu go to the parameter editing page of the selected option, and add the inst.noverifyssl parameter.

          Enter the actual installation source address, for example, https://repo.openeuler.org/openEuler-22.03-LTS/OS/x86_64/, where openEuler-22.03-LTS indicates the version number, and x86_64 indicates the CPU architecture. Use the actual version number and CPU architecture.

        • FTP mode

          The following figure shows the installation source in FTP mode. Enter the FTP address in the text box.

        You need to set up an FTP server, mount the openEuler-22.03-LTS-SP1-x86_64-dvd.iso image, and copy the mounted files to the shared directory on the FTP server. x86_64 indicates the CPU architecture. Use the image for the actual architecture.

        • NFS mode

          The following figure shows the installation source in NFS mode. Enter the NFS address in the text box.

          You need to set up an NFS server, mount the openEuler-22.03-LTS-SP1-x86_64-dvd.iso image, and copy the mounted file to the shared directory on the NFS server. x86_64 indicates the CPU architecture. Use the actual image.

      During the installation, if you have any questions about configuring the installation source, see An Exception Occurs During the Selection of the Installation Source.

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Selecting Additional Software

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Software Selection to specify the software package to be installed.

      Based on the actual requirements, select Minimal Install in the left box and select additional software in the Additional software for Selected Environment area in the right box, as shown in the following figure.

      Figure 11 Selecting additional software

      Note

      • In Minimal Install mode, not all packages in the installation source are installed. If the required package is not installed, you can mount the installation source to the local host as a repo source, and use DNF to install the package.
      • If you select Virtualization Host, the virtualization components QEMU, libvirt, and edk2 are installed by default. You can select whether to install the OVS component in the additional software area.

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting the Installation Destination

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, click Installation Destination to select the OS installation drive and partition.

      You can view available local storage devices on the INSTALLATION DESTINATION page, as shown in the following figure.

      Figure 12 Setting the installation destination

      Storage Configuration

      On the INSTALLATION DESTINATION page, configure the storage for partitioning. You can either manually configure partitions or select Automatic for automatic partitioning.

      Note

      • During partitioning, to ensure system security and performance, you are advised to divide the device into the following partitions: /boot, /var, /var/log, /var/log/audit, /home, and /tmp.
      • If the system is configured with the swap partition, the swap partition is used when the physical memory of the system is insufficient. Although the swap partition can be used to expand the physical memory, if it is used due to insufficient memory, the system response slows and the system performance deteriorates. Therefore, you are not advised to configure it in a system with sufficient physical memory or in a performance sensitive system.
      • If you need to split a logical volume group, select Custom to manually partition the logical volume group. On the MANUAL PARTITIONING page, click Modify in the Volume Group area to reconfigure the logical volume group.

      Automatic

      Select Automatic if openEuler is installed in a new storage device or the data in the storage device is not required. After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Custom

      If you need to manually partition the disk, click Custom and click Done in the upper left corner. The following page is displayed.

      On the MANUAL PARTITIONING page, you can partition the disk in either of the following ways. After the partitioning is completed, the window shown in the following figure is displayed.

      • Automatic creation: Click Click here to create them automatically. The system automatically assigns four mount points ( /boot, /, /home, and swap) according to the available storage space.

      • Manual creation: Click to add a mount point. It is recommended that the expected capacity of each mount point not exceed the available space.

        Note If the expected capacity of the mount point exceeds the available space, the system allocates all available space to the mount point.

      Figure 13 MANUAL PARTITIONING page

      Note The /boot/efi partition is required for UEFI mode only.

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the SUMMARY OF CHANGES page.

      Click Accept Changes to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting the Network and Host Name

      On the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page, select Network & Host Name to configure the system network functions.

      The installation program automatically detects accessible local interfaces. The detected interfaces are listed in the left box, and the interface details are displayed in the right area, as shown in Figure 14. You can enable or disable a network interface by clicking the switch in the upper right corner of the page. The switch is turned off by default. If the installation source is set to network, turn on the switch. You can also click Configure to configure the selected interface. Select Connect automatically with priority to enable the NIC automatic startup upon system startup, as shown in Figure 15.

      In the lower left box, enter the host name. The host name can be the fully quantified domain name (FQDN) in the format of hostname.domain_name or the brief host name in the format of hostname.

      Figure 14 Setting the network and host name

      Figure 15 Configuring the network

      After the setting is complete, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Setting the Root Password

      Select Root Password on the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page. The ROOT PASSWORD page is displayed, as shown in the Figure 16. Enter a password that meets the Password Complexity requirements and confirm the password.

      Note

      • The root account is used to perform key system management tasks. You are not advised to use the root account for daily work or system access.
      • If you select Lock root account on the Root Password page, the root account will be disabled.

      Figure 16 root password

      Password Complexity

      The password of the root user or the password of the new user must meet the password complexity requirements. Otherwise, the password configuration or user creation will fail. The password complexity requirements are as follows:

      1. A password must contain at least eight characters.

      2. A password must contain at least three of the following types: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits, and special characters.

      3. A password must be different from the user name.

      4. A password cannot contain words in the dictionary.

        Note In the installed openEuler environment, you can run the cracklib-unpacker /usr/share/cracklib/pw_dict > dictionary.txt command to export the dictionary library file dictionary.txt, and then check whether the password is in the dictionary.

      After the settings are completed, click Done in the upper left corner to go back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Creating a User

      Click User Creation. The CREATE USER is displayed, as shown in Figure 17. Enter a username and set a password. By clicking Advanced, you can also configure the home directory and user group, as shown in Figure 18.

      Figure 17 Creating a user

      Figure 18 Advanced user configuration

      After configuration, click Done in the upper left corner to go back back to the INSTALLATION SUMMARY page.

      Starting Installation

      On the installation page, after all the mandatory items are configured, the alarm symbols will disappear. Then, you can click Begin Installation to install openEuler.

      Installation Procedure

      After the installation starts, the overall installation progress and the progress of writing the software package to the system are displayed. See Figure 19

      During the OS installation, if you click Exit, reset, or power off the server, or the virtual CD-ROM drive is disconnected due network faults, the installation is interrupted and the OS is unavailable. In this case, you need to reinstall the OS.

      Figure 19 Installation progress

      Completing the Installation

      After openEuler is installed, Click Reboot to reboot the system.

      Note

      • If a physical CD/DVD-ROM is used for installation and it is not automatically ejected during the restart, manually remove it. Then, the openEuler CLI login screen is displayed.
      • If a virtual CD/DVD-ROM is used for installation, change the server boot option to Hard Disk and restart the server. Then, the openEuler CLI login screen is displayed.

      Installation in CLI Mode

      You can perform installation operations in CLI mode using a keyboard. See Figure 1.

      Figure 1 CLI mode main menu

      Note: [x] indicates that the item has been configured or is configured by default. You can modify the configuration as required. [!] indicates that the item is not configured. You must configure the item before starting installation.

      Setting the System Language

      In the main menu, enter 1 to enter the language settings, and enter 1 or 2 to set the system language as required. See Figure 2.

      Figure 2 Selecting a Language

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Setting Date and Time

      In the main menu, enter 2 to enter time zone settings. See Figure 3.

      Figure 3 Time settings

      • Time zone settings
        In Time settings, enter 1 to enter time zone settings. You can change regions and cities as required. See Figure 4.

      Figure 4 Timezone settings

      Cities are displayed in pages. Press Enter multiple times to view all cities. See Figure 5.

      Figure 5 Selecting a city

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      • NTP configuration In Time settings, enter 2 to enter NTP configuration. See Figure 6.

      Figure 6 NTP configuration

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Setting the Installation Source

      In the main menu, enter 3 to enter installation source settings. See Figure 7. You can select a local installation source or a network location.

      Figure 7 Installation source

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Note:

      • CD/DVD: Install from a mounted CD/DVD drive.
      • local ISO file: Install from a local ISO file.
      • Network: Install from a network location using HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, or NFS protocol.

      Selecting Software

      In the main menu, enter 4 to enter the software selection menu. See Figure 8. The default Minimal Install indicates the minimal environment that provides basic openEuler functions. After selecting the environment, enter c to select additional software.

      Figure 8 Software selection

      Available software varies from the selected environment:

      1. Standard: standard openEuler software packages
      2. Container Management: software packages for managing Linux containers
      3. Development Tools: basic development environment
      4. Headless Management: tools for managing non-graphical terminal systems
      5. Legacy UNIX Compatibility: compatibility tools for migrating from legacy UNIX environments
      6. Network Servers: network server software, such as DHCP, Kerberos, and NIS
      7. Scientific Support: tools for scientific computing and parallel computing
      8. Security Tools: tools for integrity and trustworthiness verification
      9. System Tools: various system tools, such as SMB client and network traffic monitoring tools
      10. Smart Card Support: support for smart card verification

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Setting the Installation Destination

      In the main menu, enter 5 to select the OS installation destination. See Figure 9. The installer automatically detects available locations. Generally, you can use the default configuration.

      Figure 9 Installation destination

      • Partitioning options
        • Replace Existing Linux system(s): Use only the space occupied by the existing OS. Data of the existing OS will be overwritten.
        • Use All Space: Delete data of the OS partition and use all space on the drive.
        • Use Free Space: Install openEuler to the free space on the drive without deleting data of the existing OS.
        • Manually assign mount points: This option is experimental and may not take effect.
      • Partitioning scheme options
        • Standard Partition: A standard partition can be a file system, swap partition, or a container for software RAID or LVM physical volume.
        • LVM: Logical volume management (LVM) displays a simple bare-metal view of basic physical storage space, such as a hard disk or an LUN. Partitions that are regarded as physical volumes in physical storage can be grouped into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, and each logical volume simulates a standard disk partition. Therefore, an LVM logical volume can be used as a partition that contains multiple physical disks.
        • LVM Thin Provisioning: Thin provisioning allows you to manage storage pools with available space, also called thin pools, which can be allocated to any number of devices as required. The thin pools can be dynamically expanded as required to allocate storage space. After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Note:

      • For system performance and security purposes, you are advised to configure the following partitions: /boot, /var, /var/log , /var/log/audit, /home, /tmp.
      • If the system is configured with the swap partition, the swap partition is used when the physical memory of the system is insufficient. Although the swap partition can be used to expand the physical memory, if the swap partition is used due to insufficient memory, the system response slows and the system performance deteriorates. Therefore, you are not advised to configure the swap partition in the system with sufficient physical memory or the performance sensitive system. In addition, unmounting of the swap partition requires the available memory (including the reclaimable memory) to be more than the size of used swap space. Otherwise, the swap partition will fail to be unmounted.
      • By default, the OS is booted from the first drive. You are advised to install the OS on the first drive. Otherwise, the OS may fail to be booted.

      Setting the Network and Host Name

      In the main menu, enter 6 to enter network configuration. See Figure 10. You can configure the host name and network devices. Alternatively, you can perform network configuration after the OS is installed.

      Figure 10 Network configuration

      • Set the host name.
        Enter 1, type in a host name, then press Enter.
        Ensure that the host name does not end with a period (.) because it is not supported by the kernel and systemd.
      • Configure the NIC.
        Enter 2 to enter network device configuration. See Figure 11.

      Figure 11 Device configuration

      1. IPv4 address or "dhcp" for DHCP: The default value is dhcp, that is, the IP address is assigned by a DHCP server.
      2. IPv4 netmask
      3. IPv4 gateway
      4. IPv6 address[/prefix] or "auto" for automatic, "dhcp" for DHCP, "ignore" to turn off: The default value is auto.
      5. IPv6 default gateway
      6. Nameservers (comma separated): Domain name servers
      7. Connect automatically after reboot
      8. Apply configuration in installer

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Setting the Root Password

      In the main menu, enter 7 to enter the root password setting. See Figure 12.

      Figure 12 Root password setting

      Enter 1 to select SM3 encryption, then press c to start entering in the password. See Figure 13.

      Figure 13 Entering root password

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Note:

      • The root password is mandatory for OS installation.

      • The root user is used to perform key OS management tasks. You are advised not to use the root user for routine operations and OS access.

      • The default encryption algorithm is SHA512.

      • When setting the password of the root user or that of a new user, you are advised to set the password according to the password complexity requirements. When you set a weak password (the password does not meet the complexity requirements), the system generates an alarm and asks you whether to use the weak password. If you enter yes, the weak password is forcibly set. However, the weak password poses security risks. Therefore, exercise caution when selecting a weak password. A strong password is expected to:

        1. Contain at least 8 characters
        2. Contain at least 3 of the following types: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits, and special characters.
        3. Be different from the user name.
        4. Not contain words in the dictionary.

      Creating a User

      In the main menu, enter 8 to enter user creation. Configure user information, such as the full name, user name, user password, whether the user is an administrator, and group of the user. See Figure 14.

      Figure 14 User creation

      Note:

      • The default encryption algorithm is SHA512.
      • Password of the new user must meet the password complexity requirements. Otherwise, user creation will fail. The password is expected to:
        1. Contain at least 8 characters
        2. Contain at least 3 of the following types: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits, and special characters.
        3. Be different from the user name.
        4. Not contain words in the dictionary.

      After completing the settings, enter c to go back to the main menu.

      Starting the Installation

      After all mandatory configurations are complete, the warnings ([!]) in the main menu disappear. See Figure 15. Enter b to start OS installation.

      Figure 15 Configuration complete

      Wait for the installation to complete. See Figure 16.

      Figure 16 Installation complete

      After the installation is complete, press Enter to reboot the system.

      Bug Catching

      Buggy Content

      Bug Description

      Submit As Issue

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      PR

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      Bug Type
      Specifications and Common Mistakes

      ● Misspellings or punctuation mistakes;

      ● Incorrect links, empty cells, or wrong formats;

      ● Chinese characters in English context;

      ● Minor inconsistencies between the UI and descriptions;

      ● Low writing fluency that does not affect understanding;

      ● Incorrect version numbers, including software package names and version numbers on the UI.

      Usability

      ● Incorrect or missing key steps;

      ● Missing prerequisites or precautions;

      ● Ambiguous figures, tables, or texts;

      ● Unclear logic, such as missing classifications, items, and steps.

      Correctness

      ● Technical principles, function descriptions, or specifications inconsistent with those of the software;

      ● Incorrect schematic or architecture diagrams;

      ● Incorrect commands or command parameters;

      ● Incorrect code;

      ● Commands inconsistent with the functions;

      ● Wrong screenshots.

      Risk Warnings

      ● Lack of risk warnings for operations that may damage the system or important data.

      Content Compliance

      ● Contents that may violate applicable laws and regulations or geo-cultural context-sensitive words and expressions;

      ● Copyright infringement.

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