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      Using DNF to Manage Software Packages

      DNF is a Linux software package management tool used to manage RPM software packages. The DNF can query software package information, obtain software packages from a specified software library, automatically process dependencies to install or uninstall software packages, and update the system to the latest available version.

      NOTE:

      • DNF is fully compatible with YUM and provides YUM-compatible command lines and APIs for extensions and plug-ins.
      • Some dnf commands require the root privilege.

      Configuring the DNF

      The DNF Configuration File

      The main configuration file of the DNF is /etc/dnf/dnf.conf which consists of two parts:

      • The main part in the file stores the global settings of the DNF.

      • The repository part in the file stores the settings of the software source. There can be zero or multiple repository sections in the file.

      In addition, the /etc/yum.repos.d directory stores zero or more repo source files, which define different repositories.

      You can configure a software source by either directly configuring the /etc/dnf/dnf.conf file or configuring the .repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d directory.

      Configuring the main Part

      The /etc/dnf/dnf.conf file contains the main part. The following is an example of the configuration file:

      [main]
      gpgcheck=1
      installonly_limit=3
      clean_requirements_on_remove=True
      best=True
      skip_if_unavailable=False
      

      Common options are as follows:

      Table 1 main parameter description

      Parameter

      Description

      cachedir

      Cache directory for storing RPM packages and database files.

      keepcache

      The options are 1 and 0, indicating whether to cache the RPM packages and header files that have been successfully installed. The default value is 0, indicating that the RPM packages and header files are not cached.

      debuglevel

      Sets debugging information generated by the DNF. The value ranges from 0 to 10. A larger value indicates more detailed debugging information. The default value is 2. The value 0 indicates that the debug information is not displayed.

      clean_requirements_on_remove

      Deletes the dependency items that are no longer used during DNF removal. If the software package is installed through the DNF instead of the explicit user request, the software package can be deleted only through clean_requirements_on_remove, that is, the software package is introduced as a dependency item. The default value is True.

      best

      The system always attempts to install the latest version of the upgrade package. If the latest version cannot be installed, the system displays the cause and stops the installation. The default value is True.

      obsoletes

      The options are 1 and 0, indicating whether to allow the update of outdated RPM packages. The default value is 1, indicating that the update is allowed.

      gpgcheck

      The options are 1 and 0, indicating whether to perform GPG verification. The default value is 1, indicating that verification is required.

      plugins

      The options are 1 and 0, indicating that the DNF plug-in is enabled or disabled. The default value is 1, indicating that the DNF plug-in is enabled.

      installonly_limit

      Sets the number of versions of a package that can be installed at the same time by running the installonlypkgs command. The default value is 3. You are advised not to decrease the value.

      Configuring the repository Part

      The repository part allows you to customize openEuler software source repositories. The name of each repository must be unique. Otherwise, conflicts may occur. You can configure a software source by either directly configuring the /etc/dnf/dnf.conf file or configuring the .repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d directory.

      • Configuring the /etc/dnf/dnf.conf file

        The following is a minimum configuration example of the [repository] section:

        [repository]
        name=repository_name
        baseurl=repository_url
        

        NOTE: openEuler provides an online image source at https://repo.openeuler.org/. For example, if the openEuler 22.03 LTS SP2 version is aarch64, the baseurl can be set to https://repo.openeuler.org/openEuler-22.03-LTS-SP2/OS/aarch64/.

        Common options are as follows:

        Table 2 repository parameter description

        Parameter

        Description

        name=repository_name

        Name string of a software repository.

        baseurl=repository_url

        Address of the software repository.

        • Network location using the HTTP protocol, for example, http://path/to/repo
        • Network location using the FTP protocol, for example, ftp://path/to/repo
        • Local path: for example, file:///path/to/local/repo
      • Configuring the .repo file in the /etc/yum.repos.d directory openEuler provides multiple repo sources for users online. For details about the repo sources, see Installing the OS.

        For example, run the following command as the root user to add the openeuler repo source to the openEuler.repo file.

        vi /etc/yum.repos.d/openEuler.repo
        
        [OS]
        name=openEuler-$releasever - OS
        baseurl=http://repo.openeuler.org/openEuler-22.03-LTS-SP2/OS/$basearch/
        enabled=1
        gpgcheck=1
        gpgkey=http://repo.openeuler.org/openEuler-22.03-LTS-SP2/OS/$basearch/RPM-GPG-KEY-openEuler
        

        NOTE:

        • enabled indicates whether to enable the software source repository. The value can be 1 or 0. The default value is 1, indicating that the software source repository is enabled.
        • gpgkey is the public key used to verify the signature.

      Displays the Current Configuration

      • To display the current configuration information, run the following command:

        dnf config-manager --dump
        
      • To display the configuration of a software source, query the repo id:

        dnf repolist
        

        Run the following command to display the software source configuration of the corresponding ID. In the command, repository indicates the repository ID.

        dnf config-manager --dump repository
        
      • You can also use a global regular expression to display all matching configurations.

        dnf config-manager --dump glob_expression
        

      Creating a Local Software Repository

      To create a local repository of software sources, perform the following steps.

      1. Install the createrepo software package. Run the following command as the root user:

        dnf install createrepo
        
      2. Copy the required software packages to a directory, for example, /mnt/local_repo/.

      3. Run the following command to create a software source:

        createrepo /mnt/local_repo
        

      Adding, Enabling, and Disabling Software Sources

      This section describes how to add, enable, and disable the software source repository by running the dnf config-manager command.

      Adding Software Source

      To define a new software repository, you can add the repository part to the /etc/dnf/dnf.conf file or add the .repo file to the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. You are advised to add the .repo file. Each software source has its own .repo file. The following describes how to add the .repo file.

      To add such a source to your system, run the following command as the user root. After the command is executed, the corresponding .repo file is generated in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. In the command, repository_url indicates the repo source address. For details, see Table 2.

      dnf config-manager --add-repo repository_url
      

      Enabling a Software Repository

      To enable the software source, run the following command as the user root. In the command, repository indicates the repository ID in the new .repo file. You can run the dnf repolist command to query the repository ID.

      dnf config-manager --set-enable repository
      

      You can also use a global regular expression to enable all matching software sources. In the command, glob_expression indicates the regular expression used to match multiple repository IDs.

      dnf config-manager --set-enable glob_expression
      

      Disabling a Software Repository

      To disable a software source, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf config-manager --set-disable repository
      

      You can also use a global regular expression to disable all matching software sources.

      dnf config-manager --set-disable glob_expression
      

      Managing Software Package

      The DNF enables you to query, install, and delete software packages.

      Searching for Software Packages

      You can search for the required RPM package by its name, abbreviation, or description. The command is as follows:

      dnf search term
      

      The following is an example:

      $   dnf search httpd
      ========================================== N/S matched: httpd ==========================================
      httpd.aarch64 : Apache HTTP Server
      httpd-devel.aarch64 : Development interfaces for the Apache HTTP server
      httpd-manual.noarch : Documentation for the Apache HTTP server
      httpd-tools.aarch64  : Tools for use with the Apache HTTP Server
      libmicrohttpd.aarch64  : Lightweight library for embedding a webserver in applications
      mod_auth_mellon.aarch64  : A SAML 2.0 authentication module for the Apache Httpd Server
      mod_dav_svn.aarch64  : Apache httpd module for Subversion server
      

      Listing Software Packages

      To list all installed and available RPM packages in the system, run the following command:

      dnf list all
      

      To list a specific RPM package in the system, run the following command:

      dnf list glob_expression...
      

      The following is an example:

      $ dnf list httpd
      Available Packages
      httpd.aarch64              2.4.34-8.h5.oe1           Local
      

      Displaying RPM Package Information

      To view information about one or more RPM packages, run the following command:

      dnf info package_name...
      

      The following is a command example:

      $ dnf info httpd
      Available Packages
      Name        : httpd
      Version     : 2.4.34
      Release     : 8.h5.oe1
      Arch        : aarch64
      Size        : 1.2 M
      Repo        : Local
      Summary     : Apache HTTP Server
      URL         : http://httpd.apache.org/
      License     : ASL 2.0
      Description : The Apache HTTP Server is a powerful, efficient, and extensible
                  : web server.
      

      Installing an RPM Package

      To install a software package and all its dependencies that have not been installed, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf install package_name
      

      You can also add software package names to install multiple software packages at the same time. Add the strict=False parameter to the /etc/dnf/dnf.conf configuration file and run the dnf command to add --setopt=strict=0. Run the following command as the user root:

      dnf install package_name package_name... --setopt=strict=0
      

      The following is an example:

      dnf install httpd
      

      NOTE:

      Downloading Software Packages

      To download the software package using the DNF, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf download package_name
      

      If you need to download the dependency packages that are not installed, add --resolve. The command is as follows:

      dnf download --resolve package_name
      

      The following is an example:

      dnf download --resolve httpd
      

      Deleting a Software Package

      To uninstall the software package and related dependent software packages, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf remove package_name...
      

      The following is an example:

      dnf remove totem
      

      Managing Software Package Groups

      A software package set is a group of software packages that serve a common purpose, for example, a system tool set. You can use the DNF to install or delete software package groups, improving operation efficiency.

      Listing Software Package Groups

      The summary parameter can be used to list the number of all installed software package groups, available groups, and available environment groups in the system. The command is as follows:

      dnf groups summary
      

      The following is an example:

      $ dnf groups summary
      Last metadata expiration check: 0:11:56 ago on Sat 17 Aug 2019 07:45:14 PM CST.
      Available Groups: 8
      

      To list all software package groups and their group IDs, run the following command:

      dnf group list
      

      The following is an example:

      $ dnf group list
      Last metadata expiration check: 0:10:32 ago on Sat 17 Aug 2019 07:45:14 PM CST.
      Available Environment Groups:
         Minimal Install
         Custom Operating System
         Server
      Available Groups:
         Development Tools
         Graphical Administration Tools
         Headless Management
         Legacy UNIX Compatibility
         Network Servers
         Scientific Support
         Security Tools
         System Tools
      
      ```bash
      
      ### Displaying the Software Package Group Information
      
      To list the mandatory and optional packages contained in a software package group, run the following command:
      
      ```bash
      dnf group info glob_expression...
      

      The following is an example of displaying the Development Tools information:

      $ dnf group info "Development Tools"
      Last metadata expiration check: 0:14:54 ago on Wed 05 Jun 2019 08:38:02 PM CST.
      
      Group: Development Tools
       Description: A basic development environment.
       Mandatory Packages:
         binutils
         glibc-devel
         make
         pkgconf
         pkgconf-m4
         pkgconf-pkg-config
         rpm-sign
       Optional Packages:
         expect
      

      Installation Software Package Group

      Each software package group has its own name and corresponding group ID. You can use the software package group name or its ID to install the software package.

      To install a software package group, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf group install group_name
      

      or

      dnf group install groupid
      

      For example, to install the software package group of Development Tools, run the following command:

      dnf group install "Development Tools"
      

      or

      dnf group install development
      

      Deleting a Software Package Group

      To uninstall a software package group, you can use the group name or ID to run the following command as the user root:

      dnf group remove group_name
      
      dnf group remove groupid
      

      For example, to delete the software package group of Development Tools, run the following command:

      dnf group remove "Development Tools"
      
      dnf group remove development
      

      Check and Update

      You can use the DNF to check whether any software package in your system needs to be updated. You can use the DNF to list the software packages to be updated. You can choose to update all packages at a time or update only specified packages.

      Checking for Update

      To list all currently available updates, run the following command:

      dnf check-update
      

      The following is an example:

      $ dnf check-update
      Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:10 ago on Sun 01 Sep 2019 11:28:07 PM  CST.
      
      anaconda-core.aarch64       19.31.123-1.14             updates
      anaconda-gui.aarch64        19.31.123-1.14             updates
      anaconda-tui.aarch64        19.31.123-1.14             updates
      anaconda-user-help.aarch64  19.31.123-1.14             updates
      anaconda-widgets.aarch64    19.31.123-1.14             updates
      bind-libs.aarch64           32:9.9.4-29.3              updates
      bind-libs-lite.aarch64      32:9.9.4-29.3              updates
      bind-license.noarch         32:9.9.4-29.3              updates
      bind-utils.aarch64          32:9.9.4-29.3              updates
      ...
      

      Upgrade

      To upgrade a single software package, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf update package_name
      

      For example, to upgrade the RPM package, run the following command:

      $ dnf update anaconda-gui.aarch64
      Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:10 ago on Sun 01 Sep 2019 11:30:27 PM  CST.
      Dependencies Resolved
      ================================================================================
       Package                  Arch         Version              Repository     Size
      ================================================================================
      Updating:
       anaconda-gui             aarch64      19.31.123-1.14       updates       461 k
       anaconda-core            aarch64      19.31.123-1.14       updates       1.4 M
       anaconda-tui             aarch64      19.31.123-1.14       updates       274 k
       anaconda-user-help       aarch64      19.31.123-1.14       updates       315 k
       anaconda-widgets         aarch64      19.31.123-1.14       updates       748 k
      
      Transaction Summary
      ================================================================================
      Upgrade  5 Package
      
      Total download size: 3.1 M
      Is this ok [y/N]:
      

      Similarly, to upgrade a software package group, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf group update group_name
      

      Updating All Packages and Their Dependencies

      To update all packages and their dependencies, run the following command as the user root:

      dnf update
      

      Bug Catching

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