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      Managing VMs

      Overview

      StratoVirt allows you to query VM information and manage VM resources and lifecycle with QMP. To query the information about a VM, connect to the VM first.

      Querying VM Information

      Introduction

      StratoVirt can be used to query the VM status, vCPU topology, and vCPU online status.

      Querying VM Status

      Run the query-status command to query the running status of a VM.

      • Usage:

        { "execute": "query-status" }

      • Example:

      <- { "execute": "query-status" }
      -> { "return": { "running": true,"singlestep": false,"status": "running" } 
      

      Querying Topology Information

      Run the query-cpus command to query the topologies of all CPUs.

      • Usage:

        { "execute": "query-cpus" }

      • Example:

      <- { "execute": "query-cpus" }
      -> {"return":[{"CPU":0,"arch":"x86","current":true,"halted":false,"props":{"core-id":0,"socket-id":0,"thread-id":0},"qom_path":"/machine/unattached/device[0]","thread_id":8439},{"CPU":1,"arch":"x86","current":true,"halted":false,"props":{"core-id":0,"socket-id":1,"thread-id":0},"qom_path":"/machine/unattached/device[1]","thread_id":8440}]}
      

      Querying vCPU Online Status

      Run the query-hotpluggable-cpus command to query the online/offline statuses of all vCPUs.

      • Usage: { "execute": "query-hotpluggable-cpus" }

      • Example:

      <- { "execute": "query-hotpluggable-cpus" }
      -> {"return":[{"props":{"core-id":0,"socket-id":0,"thread-id":0},"qom-path":"/machine/unattached/device[0]","type":"host-x86-cpu","vcpus-count":1},{"props":{"core-id":0,"socket-id":1,"thread-id":0},"qom-path":"/machine/unattached/device[1]","type":"host-x86-cpu","vcpus-count":1}]}
      

      Online vCPUs have the qom-path item, while offline vCPUs do not.

      Managing VM Lifecycle

      Introduction

      StratoVirt can manage the lifecycle of a VM, including starting, stopping, resuming, and exiting the VM.

      Creating and Starting a VM

      Use the command line parameters to specify the VM configuration, and create and start a VM.

      • When using the command line parameters to specify the VM configuration, run the following command to create and start the VM:
      $/path/to/stratovirt - *[Parameter 1] [Parameter option] - [Parameter 2] [Parameter option]*...
      

      After the lighweight VM is started, there are two NICs: eth0 and eth1. The two NICs are reserved for hot plugging: eth0 first and then eth1. Currently, only two virtio-net NICs can be hot plugged.

      Connecting to a VM

      StratoVirt uses QMP to manage VMs. To stop, resume, or exit a VM, connect it the StratoVirt through QMP first.

      Open a new CLI (CLI B) on the host and run the following command to connect to the api-channel as the root user:

      ncat -U /path/to/socket
      

      After the connection is set up, you will receive a greeting message from StratoVirt, as shown in the following:

      {"QMP":{"version":{"qemu":{"micro":1,"minor":0,"major":4},"package":""},"capabilities":[]}}
      

      You can now manage the VM by entering the QMP commands in CLI B.

      QMP provides stop, cont, quit, and query-status commands to manage and query VM statuses.

      All QMP commands for managing VMs are entered in CLI B. <- indicates the command input, and -> indicates the QMP returned result.

      Stopping a VM

      QMP provides the stop command to stop a VM, that is, to stop all vCPUs of the VM. The command syntax is as follows:

      {"execute":"stop"}

      Example:

      The stop command and the command output are as follows:

      <- {"execute":"stop"}
      -> {"event":"STOP","data":{},"timestamp":{"seconds":1583908726,"microseconds":162739}}
      -> {"return":{}}
      

      Resuming a VM

      QMP provides the cont command to resume a stopped VM, that is, to resume all vCPUs of the VM. The command syntax is as follows:

      {"execute":"cont"}

      Example:

      The cont command and the command output are as follows:

      <- {"execute":"cont"}
      -> {"event":"RESUME","data":{},"timestamp":{"seconds":1583908853,"microseconds":411394}}
      -> {"return":{}}
      

      Exiting a VM

      QMP provides the quit command to exit a VM, that is, to exit the StratoVirt process. The command syntax is as follows:

      {"execute":"quit"}

      Example:

      <- {"execute":"quit"}
      -> {"return":{}}
      -> {"event":"SHUTDOWN","data":{"guest":false,"reason":"host-qmp-quit"},"timestamp":{"ds":1590563776,"microseconds":519808}}
      

      Managing VM Resources

      Hot-Pluggable Disks

      StratoVirt allows you to adjust the number of disks when a VM is running. That is, you can add or delete VM disks without interrupting services.

      Note

      • For a standard VM, the CONFIG_HOTPLUG_PCI_PCIE=y configuration must be enabled for the VM kernel.

      • For a standard VM, devices can be hot added to the root port. The root port device must be configured before the VM is started.

      • You are not advised to hot swap a device when the VM is being started, stopped, or under high internal pressure. Otherwise, the VM may become abnormal because the drivers on the VM cannot respond in a timely manner.

      Hot Adding Disks

      Usage:

      Lightweight VM:

      {"execute": "blockdev-add", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0", "file": {"driver": "file", "filename": "/path/to/block"}, "cache": {"direct": true}, "read-only": false}}
      {"execute": "device_add", "arguments": {"id": "drive-0", "driver": "virtio-blk-mmio", "addr": "0x1"}}
      

      Standard VM:

      {"execute": "blockdev-add", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0", "file": {"driver": "file", "filename": "/path/to/block"}, "cache": {"direct": true}, "read-only": false}}
      {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"drive-0", "driver":"virtio-blk-pci", "drive": "drive-0", "addr":"0x0", "bus": "pcie.1"}}
      

      Parameters:

      • For a lightweight VM, the value of node-name in blockdev-add must be the same as that of id in device_add. For example, the values of node-name and id are both drive-0 as shown above.

      • For a standard VM, the value of drive must be the same as that of node-name in blockdev-add.

      • /path/to/block is the image path of the hot added disks. It cannot be the path of the disk image that boots the rootfs.

      • For a lightweight VM, the value of addr, starting from 0x0, is mapped to a virtio device on the VM. 0x0 is mapped to vda, 0x1 is mapped to vdb, and so on. To be compatible with the QMP protocol, addr can be replaced by lun, but lun=0 is mapped to the vdb of the guest machine. For a standard VM, the value of addr must be 0x0.

      • For a standard VM, bus indicates the name of the bus to mount the device. Currently, the device can be hot added only to the root port device. The value of bus must be the ID of the root port device.

      • For a lightweight VM, StratoVirt supports a maximum of six virtio-blk disks. Note this when hot adding disks. For a standard VM, the maximum number of hot added disks depends on the number of root port devices.

      Example:

      Lightweight VM:

      <- {"execute": "blockdev-add", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0", "file": {"driver": "file", "filename": "/path/to/block"}, "cache": {"direct": true}, "read-only": false}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      <- {"execute": "device_add", "arguments": {"id": "drive-0", "driver": "virtio-blk-mmio", "addr": "0x1"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Standard VM:

      <- {"execute": "blockdev-add", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0", "file": {"driver": "file", "filename": "/path/to/block"}, "cache": {"direct": true}, "read-only": false}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      <- {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"drive-0", "driver":"virtio-blk-pci", "drive": "drive-0", "addr":"0x0", "bus": "pcie.1"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Hot Removing Disks

      Usage:

      Lightweight VM:

      {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id":"drive-0"}}
      

      Standard VM:

      {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id":"drive-0"}}
      {"execute": "blockdev-del", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0"}}
      

      Parameters:

      id indicates the ID of the disk to be hot removed.

      • node-name indicates the backend name of the disk.

      Example:

      Lightweight VM:

      <- {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id": "drive-0"}}
      -> {"event":"DEVICE_DELETED","data":{"device":"drive-0","path":"drive-0"},"timestamp":{"seconds":1598513162,"microseconds":367129}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Standard VM:

      <- {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id":"drive-0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      -> {"event":"DEVICE_DELETED","data":{"device":"drive-0","path":"drive-0"},"timestamp":{"seconds":1598513162,"microseconds":367129}}
      <- {"execute": "blockdev-del", "arguments": {"node-name": "drive-0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      A DEVICE_DELETED event indicates that the device is removed from StratoVirt.

      Hot-Pluggable NICs

      StratoVirt allows you to adjust the number of NICs when a VM is running. That is, you can add or delete VM NICs without interrupting services.

      Note

      • For a standard VM, the CONFIG_HOTPLUG_PCI_PCIE=y configuration must be enabled for the VM kernel.

      • For a standard VM, devices can be hot added to the root port. The root port device must be configured before the VM is started.

      • You are not advised to hot swap a device when the VM is being started, stopped, or under high internal pressure. Otherwise, the VM may become abnormal because the drivers on the VM cannot respond in a timely manner.

      Hot Adding NICs

      Preparations (Requiring the root Permission)

      1. Create and enable a Linux bridge. For example, if the bridge name is qbr0, run the following command:

        brctl addbr qbr0
        ifconfig qbr0 up
        
      2. Create and enable a tap device. For example, if the tap device name is tap0, run the following command:

        ip tuntap add tap0 mode tap
        ifconfig tap0 up
        
      3. Add the tap device to the bridge.

        brctl addif qbr0 tap0
        

      Usage:

      Lightweight VM:

      {"execute":"netdev_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "ifname":"tap0"}}
      {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "driver":"virtio-net-mmio", "addr":"0x0"}}
      

      Standard VM:

      {"execute":"netdev_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "ifname":"tap0"}}
      {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "driver":"virtio-net-pci", "addr":"0x0", "netdev": "net-0", "bus": "pcie.1"}}
      

      Parameters:

      • For a lightweight VM, id in netdev_add must be the same as that in device_add. ifname is the name of the backend tap device.

      • For a standard VM, the value of netdev must be the value of id in netdev_add.

      • For a lightweight VM, the value of addr, starting from 0x0, is mapped to an NIC on the VM. 0x0 is mapped to eth0, 0x1 is mapped to eth1. For a standard VM, the value of addr must be 0x0.

      • For a standard VM, bus indicates the name of the bus to mount the device. Currently, the device can be hot added only to the root port device. The value of bus must be the ID of the root port device.

      • For a lightweight VM, StratoVirt supports a maximum of two virtio-net NICs. Therefore, pay attention to the specification restrictions when hot adding in NICs. For a standard VM, the maximum number of hot added disks depends on the number of root port devices.

      Example:

      Lightweight VM:

      <- {"execute":"netdev_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "ifname":"tap0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      <- {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "driver":"virtio-net-mmio", "addr":"0x0"}} 
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      addr:0x0 corresponds to eth0 in the VM.

      Standard VM:

      <- {"execute":"netdev_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "ifname":"tap0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      <- {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"net-0", "driver":"virtio-net-pci", "addr":"0x0", "netdev": "net-0", "bus": "pcie.1"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Hot Removing NICs

      Usage:

      Lightweight VM:

      {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id": "net-0"}}
      

      Standard VM:

      {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id":"net-0"}}
      {"execute": "netdev_del", "arguments": {"id": "net-0"}}
      

      Parameters:

      id: NIC ID, for example, net-0.

      • id in netdev_del indicates the backend name of the NIC.

      Example:

      Lightweight VM:

      <- {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id": "net-0"}}
      -> {"event":"DEVICE_DELETED","data":{"device":"net-0","path":"net-0"},"timestamp":{"seconds":1598513339,"microseconds":97310}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Standard VM:

      <- {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id":"net-0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      -> {"event":"DEVICE_DELETED","data":{"device":"net-0","path":"net-0"},"timestamp":{"seconds":1598513339,"microseconds":97310}}
      <- {"execute": "netdev_del", "arguments": {"id": "net-0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      A DEVICE_DELETED event indicates that the device is removed from StratoVirt.

      Hot-swappable Pass-through Devices

      You can add or delete the passthrough devices of a StratoVirt standard VM when it is running.

      Note

      • The CONFIG_HOTPLUG_PCI_PCIE=y configuration must be enabled for the VM kernel.

      • Devices can be hot added to the root port. The root port device must be configured before the VM is started.

      • You are not advised to hot swap a device when the VM is being started, stopped, or under high internal pressure. Otherwise, the VM may become abnormal because the drivers on the VM cannot respond in a timely manner.

      Hot Adding Pass-through Devices

      Usage:

      {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"vfio-0", "driver":"vfio-pci", "bus": "pcie.1", "addr":"0x0", "host": "0000:1a:00.3"}}
      

      Parameters:

      • id indicates the ID of the hot added device.

      • bus indicates the name of the bus to mount the device.

      • addr indicates the slot and function numbers to mount the device. Currently, addr must be set to 0x0.

      • host indicates the domain number, bus number, slot number, and function number of the passthrough device on the host machine.

      Example:

      <- {"execute":"device_add", "arguments":{"id":"vfio-0", "driver":"vfio-pci", "bus": "pcie.1", "addr":"0x0", "host": "0000:1a:00.3"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Hot Removing Pass-through Devices

      Usage:

      {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id": "vfio-0"}}
      

      Parameters:

      • id indicates the ID of the device to be hot removed, which is specified when the device is hot added.

      Example:

      <- {"execute": "device_del", "arguments": {"id": "vfio-0"}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      -> {"event":"DEVICE_DELETED","data":{"device":"vfio-0","path":"vfio-0"},"timestamp":{"seconds":1614310541,"microseconds":554250}}
      

      A DEVICE_DELETED event indicates that the device is removed from StratoVirt.

      Using Balloon Devices

      The balloon device is used to reclaim idle memory from a VM. It called by running the QMP command.

      Usage:

      {"execute": "balloon", "arguments": {"value": 2147483648}}
      

      Parameters:

      • value: size of the guest memory to be set. The unit is byte. If the value is greater than the memory value configured during VM startup, the latter is used.

      Example:

      The memory size configured during VM startup is 4 GiB. If the idle memory of the VM queried by running the free command is greater than 2 GiB, you can run the QMP command to set the guest memory size to 2147483648 bytes.

      <- {"execute": "balloon", "arguments": {"value": 2147483648}}
      -> {"return": {}}
      

      Query the actual memory of the VM:

      <- {"execute": "query-balloon"}
      -> {"return":{"actual":2147483648}}
      

      Using VM Memory Snapshots

      Introduction

      A VM memory snapshot stores the device status and memory information of a VM in a snapshot file. If the VM is damaged, you can use the snapshot to restore it to the time when the snapshot was created, improving system reliability.

      StratoVirt allows you to create snapshots for stopped VMs and create VMs in batches with a snapshot file as the VM template. As long as a snapshot is created after a VM is started and enters the user mode, the quick startup can skip the kernel startup and user-mode service initialization phases and complete the VM startup in milliseconds.

      Mutually Exclusive Features

      Memory snapshots cannot be created or used for VMs that are configured with the following devices or use the following features:

      • vhost-net device
      • VFIO passthrough device
      • Balloon device
      • Huge page memory feature
      • mem-shared feature
      • memory backend file mem-path

      Creating a Snapshot

      For StratoVirt VMs, perform the following steps to create a storage snapshot:

      1. Create and start a VM.

      2. Run the QMP command on the host to stop the VM.

        <- {"execute":"stop"}
        -> {"event":"STOP","data":{},"timestamp":{"seconds":1583908726,"microseconds":162739}}
        -> {"return":{}}
        
      3. Confirm that the VM is stopped.

        <- {"execute":"query-status"}
        -> {"return":{"running":true,"singlestep":false,"status":"paused"}}
        
      4. Run the following QMP command to create a VM snapshot in a specified absolute path, for example, /path/to/template:

        <- {"execute":"migrate", "arguments":{"uri":"file:/path/to/template"}}
        -> {"return":{}}
        
      5. Check whether the snapshot is successfully created.

        <- {"execute":"query-migrate"}
        

        If "{"return":{"status":"completed"}}" is displayed, the snapshot is successfully created.

        If the snapshot is created successfully, the memory and state directories are generated in the specified path /path/to/template. The state file contains VM device status information, and the memory file contains VM memory data. The size of the memory file is close to the configured VM memory size.

      Querying Snapshot Status

      There are five statuses in the snapshot process.

      • None: The snapshot resource is not ready.
      • Setup: The snapshot resource is ready. You can create a snapshot.
      • Active: The snapshot is being created.
      • Completed: The snapshot is created successfully.
      • Failed: The snapshot fails to be created.

      You can run the query-migrate QMP command on the host to query the status of the current snapshot. For example, if the VM snapshot is created successfully, the following output is displayed:

      <- {"execute":"query-migrate"}
      -> {"return":{"status":"completed"}}
      

      Restoring a VM

      Precautions

      • The following models support the snapshot and boot from snapshot features:
        • microvm
        • Q35 (x86_64)
        • virt (AArch64)
      • When a snapshot is used for restoration, the configured devices must be the same as those used when the snapshot is created.
      • If a microVM is used and the disk/NIC hot plugging-in feature is enabled before the snapshot is taken, you need to configure the hot plugged-in disks or NICs in the startup command line during restoration.

      Restoring a VM from a Snapshot File

      Command Format

      stratovirt -incoming URI
      

      Parameters

      URI: snapshot path. The current version supports only the file type, followed by the absolute path of the snapshot file.

      Example

      Assume that the VM used for creating a snapshot is created by running the following command:

      $ stratovirt \
          -machine microvm \
          -kernel /path/to/kernel \
          -smp 1 -m 1024 \
          -append "console=ttyS0 pci=off reboot=k quiet panic=1 root=/dev/vda" \
          -drive file=/path/to/rootfs,id=rootfs,readonly=off,direct=off \
          -device virtio-blk-device,drive=rootfs \
          -qmp unix:/path/to/socket,server,nowait \
          -serial stdio
      

      Then, the command for restoring the VM from the snapshot (assume that the snapshot storage path is /path/to/template) is as follows:

      $ stratovirt \
          -machine microvm \
          -kernel /path/to/kernel \
          -smp 1 -m 1024 \
          -append "console=ttyS0 pci=off reboot=k quiet panic=1 root=/dev/vda" \
          -drive file=/path/to/rootfs,id=rootfs,readonly=off,direct=off \
          -device virtio-blk-device,drive=rootfs \
          -qmp unix:/path/to/another_socket,server,nowait \
          -serial stdio \
          -incoming file:/path/to/template
      

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